Wednesday, 02 January 2019 16:22

The Moral Limits of Markets

From paying people to queue for you to selling permits to allow factories to pollute, Michael Sandel (Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University) is uncomfortable with the creeping marketisation of our society. Is attaching a price to something a morally neutral act that might help us to achieve our aims more efficiently or can the act of paying for something devalue and degrade the very thing we hope to obtain? Sandel certainly thinks so.

Published in Blogs
Saturday, 01 December 2018 17:01

The Deadweight Loss of Christmas

Christmas is coming (queue a chorus of voices decrying Christmas displays in shops from August and the commercialisation of the Christmas season). But as you open yet another ill-fitting knitted jumper and garish pair of socks from great aunt Gertrude, have you ever wondered about the “efficiency” of your gifts? Confused? Let me explain.

Published in Economics
Wednesday, 11 April 2018 09:37

Trump and Trade Wars

Donald Trump is on a self-proclaimed quest to “make America great again”. He has pledged to tear up trade agreements that do not benefit the USA. Thus far he has, amongst other things, withdrawn the US from the Trans-Pacific Trade Partnership, threatened to withdraw from NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) and imposed billions of dollars of trade tariffs on China, who have of course retaliated. Let’s take a look at the economics behind trade and protectionism.


Economists usually view free trade as beneficial for all parties. The country who is most efficient at producing a good makes it cheaply and gains revenue from exporting and the country who is less efficient obtains the good more cheaply than if they had made it themselves and can focus on producing goods and services that they are more efficient at. Everyone benefits. For a more technical explanation of this you may wish to read up on the theory of absolute advantage (Adam Smith, 1776) and the theory of comparative advantage (David Ricardo, 1817).


Most economists contend that to impose tariffs (taxes on imports) would diminish these benefits or eliminate them. However, there are some situations in which many would consider protectionist (anti-trade) policies:

1)      Infant industries - temporarily protecting new industries until they are developed enough to compete on their own.

2)      Sunset industries – declining industries that we may wish to let go more slowly so that workers have time to retrain and the economy can adjust.

3)      Strategic industries – sectors that are so important to the security of an economy that we might be prepared to produce less efficiently in order to keep control of them.

4)      Anti-dumping – protecting firms against foreign goods that are being sold below cost price either because too many have been produced or in a deliberate effort to damage competitors.


It is these last two that Trump is claiming as justification. The US has regularly accused China of dumping surplus goods or of giving state subsidies to firms, which, they say, amounts to the same thing. Trump also claims that steel, an industry that has declined significantly in the US over recent years, is a strategic industry as it is needed for national defence.


It is not the first time that the US has looked to protectionist policies. The first US Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), oversaw a raft of protectionist measures that many have credited as highly successful in building the fledgling United States.


Critics of the Trump administration would suggest a degree of hypocrisy in the anti-dumping argument and point to the $25bn a year that the US pays out in farm subsidies and the generous defence contracts given to some firms that allow them to subsidise other products. Some have also suggested that the steel the US has traditionally produced cannot be considered a strategic industry,1 as they have traditionally focused on lower grades of steel, not the very high grade steel required by defence industries, which they have always imported.


Trump’s trade theory then; is he getting tough to defend American interests or is this a naked attempt to appeal to core voters who have lost manufacturing jobs in the Rust-Belt? Does it make good economic sense or is Trump destined to increase costs for US businesses and condemn the economy to focus on inefficiently producing goods and services that it is ill-equipped to produce instead of importing them?


Further Reading:

BBC Radio 4’s “The Long View” considers the early history of US protectionism and whether Trump’s policies are likely to have the same beneficial effects. You can listen to it here:


EconplusDal has some excellent YouTube videos on the benefits from trade and the theories of comparative and absolute advantage. You can find these here:


You can find Adam Smith’s original publication of the theory of absolute advantage here:


You can find David Ricardo’s original work on comparative advantage here:


BBC News have some excellent articles on Trump’s approach to trade, including this one:

Published in Economics
Thursday, 07 May 2015 21:56

Aggregate Demand - Video

Aggregate demand is one of the central concepts in macroeconomics. It is used to analyse changes in economic output and indicate the likely impact on other economic goals such as inflation, unemployment, budget balance and the balance of trade. Made up of consumption spending, investment spending, government spending and the balance of trade, aggregate demand measures the total value of spending within an economy over a period of time.

This video will take you through drawing the aggregate demand curve and the sorts of changes that might lead to a shift in the AD curve.


Published in The National Economy
Thursday, 03 October 2013 14:44

Aid - Where Does it Go?

Overseas Development Aid (ODA) is centered on Africa but, depending on what you consider to be aid, it is spent all over the world including some quite surprising places. If you include military assistance for example (most measured of aid do not, other than for peace keeping purposes) then Israel receives more aid from the US than the whole of Africa.

What about more traditional aid? UK aid spending is concentrated on Africa and countries in and around the Indian subcontinent, although parliament has recently signaled its intention to phase out aid to India over the coming years. The above image from the Guardian gives much more detail and is hard to beat. Click on the image above to enlarge it or go to their UK Aid Data Page to see the whole article and others.

Published in Blogs
Thursday, 03 October 2013 09:26

Aid - How Much?

The UN target for overseas development aid (ODA) is for countries to give 0.7% of GNI so how well are we doing? 

ODA/GNI of selected countries 2011

Since these figures were released by the OECD last year the UK has increased aid spending to meet the target but still only 6 countries reach it and only 3 exceed it. The average spend on ODA is just 0.3%, less than half of what the UK wants. Click on the image to explore the OECD website.

Even this figure flatters, however. Much of this aid is 'tied aid'. It is only given on certain conditions, for example it may only be given if the money is used to buy the required goods and services from companies based in the donor country. The OECD estimate that tied aid reduces the benefits from the aid money spent by over 20% Many countries make use of tied aid. Again here the UK comes out well with no tied aid at all. The USA is at the other end of the scale. A huge 96% of US aid is tied aid. The UN estimates that 42% of aid in 2009 was tied aid.

Tied Aid by Country

The headline figure of about $2 trillion in ODA over the last 50 years sounds like a lot but with much of it tied aid and US GNI for 2012 standing at $15 trillion, that figure is sounding very small.

Published in Blogs
Wednesday, 02 October 2013 18:25

Aid - What is Going Wrong?

Since about 1970, more than $2 trillion of aid have been given world wide, much of it from western countries to Africa and yet the proportion of African's living in poverty has risen six fold. Something isn't working. The question is what.

Aid is a complicated topic. Are we considering long term economic aid? Is this different to emergency, disaster relief aid? Who are we doing it for? Should we be doing it at all?

Some recent reading. news headlines and discussions on aid have set me off thinking about the various issues surrounding it and it occurred to be that a mini series on aid might be a good way to kick off this blog. The intention is not so much to give answers, although I hope there will be some, but more to provoke thought through a series of posts over the next few days or weeks. Do feel free to use the comments on at the bottom to add your thoughts (you will need to create a free account before you can post).

Published in Blogs
Friday, 04 October 2013 00:00

Aid - Why do we Give Aid?

 It is an important question. Godfery Bloom, the former UKIP MEP tried to raise debate on this issue rather in-eloquently but sadly his use of the generic description of unworthy aid recipients as 'Bongo Bongo Land' rather distracted from discussion he was seeking to have (at least that is the charitable view of his media gaff).

 The usual answer most people give if they are asked why we should give aid is that we have a moral duty to help people less fortunate than ourselves, a colleague of mine described it as the international version of buying the Big Issue. An informal survey during a class discussion  showed all bar 2 of the 30 or so there agreed with that way of thinking.

Some take a more self interested approach. Some will argue that the reason to give aid is one of self-interest. This may happen directly through 'tied aid'. The provision of aid may be directly linked to favorable trade deals for firms from the donor nation but it need not be so blatant. Aid may be given purely to improve infrastructure in areas that companies from the donor country operate or to build a customer base for future exports.

There is an alternative, however. Africa has globally important stocks of raw materials - precious metals, oil and gems yet the countries that have grown rich from exploiting these tend to be western countries. Could it just be possible that the reason Africa is poor is because we are rich. Aid spending may be developed nations giving generously or it could be wealthy nations trying to assuage their guilt.

The history of European and North American involvement in Africa is one of interference, slavery, colonialism and exploitation. Could it be that guilt, or even worse, further self gain through tied aid is the reason for the current focus on aid flows?

Published in Blogs
Tuesday, 10 September 2013 16:25

Guide to EU Institutions

It can be really hard to get a grip on how the various EU bodies fit together. The European Commission is a little like the British Civil Service but, unlike in the UK it is able to propose legislation. In fact it is the only body that can introduce legislation. This legislation is then debated by both the EU Parliament and the Council of Ministers separately. They each determine their own position before coming together to agree, amend or reject the bill. They must reach agreement in order for it to become EU law. The Court of Auditors and the Court of Justice also have roles in overseeing the process and enforcing bills brought into law.

While you don't require a great amount of detail for Economics A-Level, it does come into AQA unit 4 if you choose to answer the European Union context question. The presentation below will lead you through in a little more detail. If you are using an iPad then you can still view it but you will need the Prezi app. You can find more information about it here.


Thursday, 04 July 2013 16:59

PED and Revenue

Price elasticity of demand (PED) is one of the key concepts when it comes to evaluating the impact of a demand/supply shift. The price elasticity of demand tells us no just whether price or quantity increases or decreases but how much demand for a product changes when price changes. This has an impact on revenue.